Condition Monitoring and Maintenance Planning of Turbines - Francis, Pelton and Kaplan Turbines

Course Contents
Each turbine ’ s component types are described in separate chapters, and each chapter has been divided into the following sections:

        • Description of components

        • Types of damages

        • Measuring methods

        • Measurement programme

Description of Components
This section gives a short description on the units ’ configuration and manner of operation.
Types of Damages
Provides a general description of relevant damage mechanisms that makes for the most common reasons for wear and tear. Types of damages most relevant for these turbine types are:

        Mechanical wear                 Corrosion
        Sand erosion                       Cavitation
        Scoring                               Hammering
        Fatigue                               Deformation
        Displacements                     Loose connections

Measuring Methods
This section gives a short summary of the most relevant methods used for surveillance and diagnosis of the types of damages described in the section Damage mechanisms .
Relevant measurement methods for these turbines are:

        • Visual Inspection
        • Penetrate Examination
        • Magnetic particle examination
        • Eddy current measurement
        • Ultra sound testing
        • Vibrating measurements

Measurement Programme
It is important to have a strategy for which measurements need to be carried out, and how often this should happen. The outcome of this strategy is a recommended measurement programme for monitoring and recording of the operating condition of the unit.

In addition the courses contain further information on the following:

        • Principles for measurement of leakage water flow rate
          • Pitot measurement 
          • Ultrasound measurement
        • Losses in the turbine:-
          • Which gives a short description of losses occurring in the turbine. The losses are quantified as a reduction in turbine efficiency.
        • Flow diagrams with interpretation criteria:-
          • This should be of help when making a diagnosis of the condition for the unit in question by applying a set of rules (interpretation criteria) on the measurement results. The diagnosis leads to initiatives which should be implemented if the values are divergent.
        • Inspection forms:-
          • Contains forms for registering of the individual measurements necessary for a satisfactory assessment

This course is designed to facilitate participants with the guidelines required to implement effective condition monitoring and maintenance planning programmes on existing turbines resulting in more power production rather than putting money into new production capacity.

The Francis Turbine is discussed in detail with description of all the mechanical components including description of types of actual wear and damages occurring on each component, their causes as well as a description of methods for measuring and measuring programmes with the necessary flow diagrams and inspection forms.